Traditional protectionism versus behind-the-border barriers in the post-crisis era: experience of three groups of countries: the EU, NAFTA and BRICS
|Title:||Traditional protectionism versus behind-the-border barriers in the post-crisis era: experience of three groups of countries: the EU, NAFTA and BRICS|
Vol. 7, No 2, 2014
Published date: 20-09-2014 (print) / 20-09-2014 (online)
Journal of International Studies
ISSN: 2071-8330, eISSN: 2306-3483
|Keywords:||protectionism, trade policy, behind-the-border measures, global economic crisis, European Union, BRICS, NAFTA|
This paper provides quantitative evidence of the protectionist measures imple- mented by three groups of countries: the European Union, NAFTA and BRICS in the aftermath of the last financial crisis. This article reveals that both emerging economies and highly-industrialized countries were very active in introducing discrimination measures against foreign commercial interests; however the dominated forms of pro- tectionist actions were not traditional ones (border measures), but behind-the-border barriers. Furthermore, in the post-crisis era, the majority of protectionist actions took illegible form and were implemented not only towards the third countries but also among the members of free trade-based organization like the EU or NAFTA.